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Monday, June 6

TNPSC Indian Economy Study Materials - Land Reforms and Agriculture

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Land Reforms
Land Reforms in simple terms it means the measures or regulations taken by the government regarding the ownership of the agricultural lands. It also involves tenancy reforms, land ceiling, land redistribution and more for the benefit.
 Land Reforms in British India
During the British rule in India, they introduced 3 major Land revenue system as per the need of the location and their convenient.
  1. Zamindari System
  2. Ryotwari System
  3. Mahalwari System
Zamindari System (Permanent Settlement)
  • Who Introduced? - Cornwallis with the help of John Shore
  • When? - 1793
  • Where? - Bengal, Bihar, Orissa regions
  • Who is the land owner in this system? - Zamindar
  • How was the Peasant's Status?
    • Peasant became the tenants with no rights on land.
Ryotwari System
  • Who Introduced? - Thomas Munro
  • When? - 1820
  • Where? First in Madras and then Bombay and Assam
  • Who is the owner of land? - Peasants
  • How the revenue was collected? - Peasants paid the tax directly to the government.
Mahalwari System
  • Who Introduced? - William Bentick
  • When? - 1833
  • Where? Central India, Gangetic Plains, North western India, Punjab regions
  • Who is the owner of land? - Peasants
  • How the revenue was collected? - Peasants pay tax to village community head and the headman pays it to the government.
Boodhan Movement
  • It was started by Acharya Vinoba Bhave in 1951.
  • It means Land Gift Movement.
  • This movement persuaded the large land holders voluntarily to give a portion of their land holding to the landless poor.

Other Areas Need to be covered for mains
  • Land Ceiling acts 1976
  • Tenancy Reforms Act 1962
  • Abolition of Intermediaries Act 1948

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