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Saturday, May 31

[Chemistry] Acids, Bases and Salts - General Science Study Materials

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    Acids, Bases and Salts

    Acids
    • Taste: Sour
    • Testing: Changes the Blue litmus paper to Red.
    • Conducts Electricity when acid solution is mixed with water.
    • Ions produced in water: H3O+ or H+ ions

    Common Acids and its Sources
    1. Acetic Acid - Vinegar
    1. Citric acid - Citrus fruits like orange, lemon, etc..,
    1. Lactic Acid - Curd
    2. Methanoic Acid - Ant sting, Nettle sting..
    3. Oxalic acid - Tomato
    4. Tartaric Acid - Tamarind

    Bases
    • Taste: Bitter
    • Testing: Changes Red litmus paper to Blue.
    • The purple colour litmus solution indicates that the solution is neither acidic nor basic.
    • Conducts Electricity when basic solution is mixed with water.
    • Ions produced in water: OH- ions.
    • Alkali: Bases which are soluble in water.

    pH Scale
    • Used to find the hydrogen ion concentration in the given solution.
    • pH , p - power(potenz in german).
    • Minimum value - 0 and Maximum Value -14
    • Value '0' represents - very acidic
    • Value '14' represents - Very basic or very alkaline
    • Value '7' represents - Neutral
    • pH value for acid rain - less than 5.6.


    Salts:
    • Chlorine - Water treatment
    • Bleaching powder - oxidising agent, disinfectants
    • Sodium Hydrogen carbonate - Antacids, baking soda
    • Sodium carbonate - Washing Soda

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