[Modern India]India in the 18th Century Study Materials 1700 - 1800 - TNPSC GURU - TNPSC Group 2A/2 Apply Online - Join Test batch


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Tuesday, July 1

[Modern India]India in the 18th Century Study Materials 1700 - 1800

Bahadur Shah (1707 - 1712)
  • After Aurangazeb's death Bahadur shah came into power.
  • He was more tolerant towards the Hindus.
  • No Destruction of Temples during his reign.
  • Bahadur shah did not recognize Shahu, the grandson of Shivaji as the rightful king of Maratha.

Jahandar Shah (1712-1713)
  • After the death of Bahadur Shah, the nobles played  a great role in the Mughal Politics.
  • Among the nobles, Zulfiqar Khan was the most powerful one.
  • Jahandhar shah one of the sons of Bahadur shah, was supported by Zulfiqar Khan to capture the throne.
  • Jahandhar shah was a very weak ruler,  the entire administration was under the hands of Zulfiqar Khan who later become Jahandhar Shah's Wazir.
  • Jizyah was abolished during his reign.
  • Ijarah - a revenue farming system was implemented in which the intermediaries are required to pay a fixed amount to the government at the same time they can demand any amount from the farmers.
  • On seeing the Zuliqar Khan's position the fellow nobles developed hatred reactions between him and Jahandhar shah. At last Zulfiqar khan was Killed.

Farrukh Siyar
  • Farrukh Siyar was the Nephew of Jahandhar Shah.
  • Farrukh siyar defeated Jahandhar Shah in a battle at Agra with the help of Saiyid Brothers : Abdullah Khan and Husain Ali khan Barahow.
  • Farrukh siayar wanted to control over the Saiyid Brothers because of his weaknesses he failed.
  • Later the Saiyid brothers killed the incapable ruler Farrukh siyar.
  • The Saiyid brothers was called as the King Maker by the historians.

Muhammad Shah (1719-1748)
  • The Saiyid Brothers made Muhammad shah the emperor after two successors of Farrukh siyar.
  • Muhammad shah was weak minded and fond of luxury life.
  • The Saiyid brothers granted the right to chauth and sardeshmukhi of the 6 provinces of Deccan to Shahu.
  • Shahu also agreed to support the Mughals.
  • A group of nobles headed by Nizam-ul-Mulk and Muhammad Amin khan roused against the Saiyid brothers.
  • They also got the support of Muhammad shah to overthrow Saiyid brothers. As a result Nizam-ul-Mulk got the viceroyalty of Deccan.
  • First the younger Hussain ali Khan was killed and later Abdullah Khan was also killed.
  • Nizam-Ul-Mulk tried to introduce reforms in the administration and he was not given support by the emperor. So he left the empire and went towards south where he found the state of hyderabad in Deccan.
  • Nadir Shah was the ruler of Persia whose financial position became weak due to his continuous war campaigns. He saw India as an opportunity to relieve his financial crisis. The position of weak mughals was also seen as a favorable thing for looting India's wealth.
  • In 1739 Nadir Shah's army and Mughal army met at karnal in which Muhammad shah was made a prisoner.
  • It was during this campaign the Koh-I-Noor diamond and Peacock throne of Shahjahan was taken away by Nadir shah.
  • The plunder was estimated to be 70 crores which made Nadir shah to be Tax Free reign for 3 years.

Impact of Nadir Shah's campaign
  • It severely affected the financial position of Mughals.
  • Exposed its weaknesses to the foreign trade companies and rival Marathas.
  • Administration was not able function.
  • The rich nobles who lost their wealth become more vigorous towards the farmers.
  • Kabul which was considered as a strategic place for defense was lost.
  • Mughals empire began to shrink rapidly.
  • Ahmad shah abdali general of Nadir Shah repeatedly plundered delhi.

Ahmad Shah(1748-54)
Alamgir II (1754-1759)
Shah Alam II (1759-1806)
  • He was an able and courage emperor after a long period of time.
  • Battle of Buxar - 1764
    • Fought between British and Three allies
    • The British forces are led by Major Munro.
    • Three Allies: Shah Alam of Mughal empire, Mir Qasim of Bengal and Shuja-ud-Daula of Awadh.
    • The Mughal Allies was completely defeated.
Akbar II (1806-1837)
  • He have the title 'Raja' to Rammohan Roy.
Bahadur Shah II (1837-1857)
  • Proclaimed by as the Emperor of India during the Great Revolt of 1857.

Succession States
  • Bengal, Awadh and Hyderabad.
  • These states are termed as succession states because the governors of the former mughal provinces claimed themselves the ruler of the respective provinces.

  • Founded by Nizam-Ul-Mulk. (for more info please refer Muhammad Shah)

  • It was a feudatory of hyderabad and later became independent.
  • Nawab Saadutullah Khan was succeeded by his nephew Dost Ali.
  • In 1700 Murshid Quli Khan was made dewan of Bengal and later 1717 its governor.
  • After the death of Murshid Quli khan in 1727 his son-in-law Shuja-ud-din came to power .
  • In 1739, Alivardi Khan removed Shuja-ud-din from the power and also claimed himself the ruler after killing Shuja-Ud-din's son Sarfaraz khan.
  • Alivardi Khan granted taccavi which means agricultural loans to the poor cultivators
  • Alivardi khan established Thanas and chowkies for the safety of roads and rivers.
  • Alivardi Khan asked british and french to dismantle their forts at Calcutta and Chandernagore.
  • Siraj-ud-daulah succeeded the throne after Alivardi Khan.

  • In 1722, Saadat khan Burhan-ul-Mulk was appointed as the governor.
  • He was a bold and intelligent person.
  • He introduced a fresh revenue system to relieve the peasants from the money lenders.
  • Safdar Jang nephew of Saadat Khan succeeded  him.
  • Safdar jang was a person of high morality . He also made an agreement with the Peshwa to help the mughal against Ahmad shah Abdali.

Haidar Ali
  • Though uneducated he recognised the advantages of western military training and adopted it his own troops.
  • In 1755, with French's help he established a modern arsenal in Dindigal.
  • He also occupied Malabar. He fought with British repeatedly and died in 1782.[Second Anglo Maratha War]

Tipu Sultan
  • In 1782, Tipu sultan succeeded his father Haider Ali.
  • He is an innovator, introduced a new calender, coinage and weight and measures.
  • He was very much inspired by the french revolution and became a member of Jacobian club.
  • Planted a 'Tree of  Liberty' at Srirangapatnam.
  • "better to live a day as a lion than a lifetime as a sheep"
  • Tried to establish a trading company in European fashion.

  • King Marthanda Varma Was the most famous king. He constructed a modern arsenal and modernized his army.
  • King Rama Varma The Successor of marthanda varma was a great Scholar.

  • Raja Sawai jai Singh was the most  famous king.
  • He was a great astronomer and reformer.
  • He established many the astronomical observatories.
  • Zij Muhammadshahi - a set of tables given by Raja Sawai to make astronomical observations.

The Jats
  • A caste of agriculturalist who lived around the regions of delhi, agra and Mathura.
  • Bharatpur a Jat state set up by Charuman and Badan Singh.
  • Suraj Mul was the most famous Jat King who was also referred as the plato of the jat tribe.

The Sikhs
  • The Sikh religion was founded by Guru Nanak in the 15th Century.
  • During Guru hargobind's period the transformation of sikhs to a militant started.
  • During Guru Govind Singh's period it became a political and militant power. He was the 10th and the last Sikh Guru.
  • Banda Singh who is also called as banda bahadur was the most famous leader of Sikhs.
  • Ranjit Singh the leader of Sukerchakia Misl rose to power at the end of the 18th Century.
  • In 1707, Shahu the Grandson of Shivaji was released after Aurangazeb's death.
  • On Shahu arrival civil war broke out between Shahu and his aunt Tara bai.
  • It was during shahu's Period a new system of peshwaship emerged under Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath.

Balaji Vishwanath

    • In 1713 King Shahu made Balaji Vishwanath his Peshwa.
    • He influenced Zulfiqar khan to grant the Chauth and Sardeshmukhi of the Deccan.
    • In 1719, helped the saiyid brothers to overthrow Farrukh siyar.

Baji Rao I
  • In 1720,Balaji Vishwanath died and his son Baji Rao I became the Peshwa.
  • Referred as the Greatest exponent of Guerrilla Tactics after Shivaji.
  • He is the one who is responsible for changing the kingdom of Maharashtra to an empire.

Balaji Baji Rao (Also Called as Nana Saheb)
    • In 1740 Baji Rao I died and his son Balaji Baji Rao became the Peshwa.
  • In 1749, King Shahu died.
    • Balaji Baji Rao captured punjab from the hands of the agent of Ahmad shah Abdali, which later paved they way for the Third battle of Panipat.

Causes for ignorance of the real power of the British Companies by the Indian rulers
  • The Indian Rulers thought them as a mere trading companies which is good for their economy.
  • Lack of contact with the rest of the world.
  • Indian rulers fought themselves , looking the fellow contemporary ruler as their enemy and failed to look British as a capable opponent in the early stages.

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